Eastern Art Online, Yousef Jameel Centre for Islamic and Asian Art

Ashmolean − Eastern Art Online, Yousef Jameel Centre for Islamic and Asian Art

Early Himalayan Art

A full catalogue of the Ashmolean's collection of diverse works from the formative periods of Himalayan art, c. AD 700-1400 by Amy Heller (published Oxford, 2008).

Early Himalayan Art by Amy Heller


Aldenderfer, M., ‘Defining Zhang zhung Ethnicity: An Archaeological Perspective from Far Western Tibet', in A. Heller and G. Orofino, eds., Discoveries in Western Tibet and the Western Himalayas, Leiden, 2007, pp. 1-22. 

_____ and Moyes H., ‘Excavations at Dindun, A Pre-Buddhist Village Site in Far Western Tibet', in Huo Wei et al. eds., Essays on the International Conference on Tibetan Archeology and Art, Beijing, 2004, pp. 47-69. 

Alsop, I., ‘The Metal Sculpture of the Khasa Malla Kingdom', Orientations, 1994, 6, pp. 61-8. 

_____ ‘Metal Sculpture of the Khasa Mallas', in J. Casey Singer and P. Denwood, eds., Tibetan Art: Towards a Definition of Style, London, 1997, pp. 68-79.

Anninos, T., ‘Tokches: Images of Change in Early Buddhist Art', Orientations, 1998, 9, pp. 93-8.

_____ ‘Tibetan Buddhist Amulets', Arts of Asia, 2004, 2, pp. 112-26.

Bangdel, L. S., Stolen Images of Nepal, Kathmandu, 1989.

_____ and Aryal, M. R., A Report on the Study of the Iconography of Kathmandu Valley and their Preservation and Protection, Kathmandu: His Majesty's Government Department of Archaeology, 1996.

Bartholomew, T. T., ‘Beauty, Wealth and Power: Jewels and Ornaments of Asia [thoglchags]', in Triptych, San Francisco: Asian Art Museum, 1992, pp. 17-21. 

Béguin, G., Art esotérique de l'Himalaya: La Donation Lionel Fournier, Paris: Musée Guimet, 1990.

______ and Held, S., Nepal: Vision d'un art sacré, Paris, 1996.

Bellezza, J.V., ‘Thogchags: Talismans of Tibet', Arts of Asia, 1998, 3, pp. 44-64. 

______ Togcha, 2004 [www.asianart.com].

Bentor, Y., ‘The Content of Stupas and Images and the Indo-Tibetan Concept of Relics', Tibet Journal, 2003, 1-2, pp. 21-48. 

Bühnemann, G., ‘Remarks on the Author Abhayakaragupa and his Works', in G. Bühnemann and Tachikawa, M., Nispannayogavali: Two Sanskrit Manuscripts from Nepal, Tokyo: Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies, 1991, pp. xiii-xx.

Carter, M., ‘Three Silver Vessels from Tibet's Earliest Historical Era: A Preliminary Study', Cleveland Studies in the History of Art, 5, 1998, pp. 22-47. 

Casey, J., ed., Medieval Sculpture from Eastern India: Selections from the Nalin Collection, Livingston, 1985.

_____ Selection 1994, London: Rossi and Rossi Ltd., 1994.

_____ Beyond Lhasa: Sculpture and Painting from East and West Tibet, London: Rossi and Rossi, 2002.

_____ and Denwood, P., eds., Tibetan Art: Towards a Definition of Style, London, 1997.

Chayet, A., Art et Archéologie du Tibet, Paris, 1994. Dagyab, R., Buddhist Symbols, Somerville, 1995. 

Denwood, P., ‘Temple and Rock Inscriptions of Alchi', in D. Snellgrove and T. Skorupski, The Cultural Heritage of Ladakh, vol. 2, Warminster, 1980, pp. 119-63.

Dinwiddie, D., ed., Portraits of the Masters, Chicago, 2004.

Dorjee, P., Stupa and its Technology: A Tibeto-Buddhist Perspective, Delhi, 2001. 

Dowman, K., tr., Masters of Enchantment, Rochester, 1988.

Duan Wenjie, Five Thousand Years of Chinese Art, vol. 15: The Frescoes of Dunhuang, Tang to Sung Dynasties, Brussels and Shanghai, 1989. 

English, E., Vajrayogini: Her Visualizations, Rituals and Forms, Boston and London, 2002.

Gies, J. and Cohen, M., Sérinde: Te r re de Bouddha, Paris: Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1 9 9 5.

Goepper, R. and Ponczar, J., Alchi: Ladakh's Hidden Buddhist Sanctuary, London, 1997.

Goetz, H., The History and Art of Kashmir and the Indian Himalayas, Wiesbaden, 1969.

Grönbold, G., ‘The Art of Tibetan Book Covers', Tibet Journal, 2002, 3/4, pp. 171-182.

Gutschow, N., The Nepalese Caitya, Stuttgart, 1997.

Gyaltsen, K., tr., The Great Kagyu Masters, Ithaca, 1990.

Haarh, E., The Yar-lun Dynasty, Copenhagen, 1969.

Hagmüller, G., Patan Museum: The Transformation of a Royal Palace in Nepal, London, 2003.

Han Wei and Deydier, C., Ancient Chinese Gold, Paris, 2001.

Härtel, H. and Yaldiz, M., Along the Ancient Silk Routes: Central Asian Art from the West Berlin State Museums, New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1982. 

Hatt, R., ‘A Thirteenth-century Tibetan Reliquary: An Iconographic and Physical Analysis', Artibus Asiae, 1980, 2/3, pp. 175-220.

Heller, A., ‘An Eighth-century Child's Garment of Sogdian and Chinese Silks', Orientations: Chinese and Central Asian Textiles, 1998, pp. 220-22.

______ Tibetan Art, Milan and Wappinger Falls, 1999.

_____ ‘The Silver Jug of the Lhasa Jokhang: Some Observations on Silver Objects and Costumes from the Tibetan Empire (7th-9th century)', Silk Road Art and Archaeology, 9, 2003, pp. 213-38 [also at: www.asianart.com, 2002].

_____ ‘Archeological Artefacts from the Tibetan Empire in Central Asia', Orientations, 4, 2003, pp. 55-64. 

_____ ‘The Three Silver Brothers', Orientations, 2003, 4, pp. 28-34. 

_____ ‘Early Ninth-century Images of Va i rocana from Eastern Tibet', Orientations, 1994, 6, pp. 7 4-9.

_____ ‘Archeology of Funeral Rituals as Revealed by Tibetan tombs of the 8th to 9th Century', in M. Comparetti et al., eds., Eran ud Aneran: Studies Presented to Boris Illich Marshak on the Occasion of his 70th Birthday, Venice, 2006, pp. 261-74 [also: www.transoxiana.com.ar/Eran/articles/Heller.html_eran_ud_aneran].

_____ ‘Recent Findings on Textiles from the Tibetan Empire', in R. Schorta, ed., Riggisberger Berichte, 9: Central Asian Textiles and their Contexts in the Early Middle Ages, Riggisberg: Abegg Stiftung, 2006, pp. 175-88. 

Heller, A., Hidden Treasures of the Himalaya: Tibetan Buddhist Manuscripts, Paintings and Sculptures of Dolpo, (Chicago, forthcoming).

_____ ‘Some Preliminary Remarks on the Excavations at Dulan', Orientations, 1998, 9, pp. 84-92.

Hinüber, O. von, Die Palola-Sahis, ihre Steinschriften, Inschriften auf Bronzen, Handschriftenkolophone und Schutzzauber: Materialen zur Geschichte von Gilgit und Chilas, Mainz am Rhein, 2004.

Howard, A., ‘The Development of Buddhist Sculpture in Sichuan' and ‘The Development of Buddhist Sculpture in Yunnan', in J. Baker, ed., The Flowering of a Foreign Faith: New Studies in Chinese Buddhist Art, Bombay, 1998, pp. 116-33, 134-45.

Huntington, S., The ‘Pala-Sena' Schools of Sculpture, Leiden, 1984.

_____ and Huntington, J., Leaves from the Bodhi Tree, Dayton and Seattle, 1990.

Juliano, A., and Lerner, J., Monks and Merchants: Silk Road Treasures from Northwest China, New York: Asia Society, 2001.

Karmay, H., Early Sino-Tibetan Art, Warminster, 1975.

_____ ‘Tibetan Costume, Seventh to Eleventh Centuries', in A. Macdonald and Y. Imaeda, eds., Essais sur l'art de Tibet, Paris, 1977, pp. 65-81.

Kapstein, M., The Tibetan Assimilation of Buddhism, Oxford, 2000.

Klimburg, M., ‘The Western Trans-Himalayan Crossroads', in D. Klimburg-Salter, The Silk Route and the Diamond Path, Los Angeles, 1982, pp. 25-37.

Klimburg-Salter, D., The Silk Route and the Diamond Path, Los Angeles, 1982.

_____ The Kingdom of Bamiyan: Buddhist Art and Culture of the Hindu Kush, Naples and Rome, 1989.

_____ Tabo: A Lamp for the Kingdom, Milan, 1997.

Kossak, S. and Casey Singer, J., Sacred Visions, New York: Metropolitan Museum, 1998.

Lalou, M., ‘Rituel bon-po des funérailles royales', Journal Asiatique, vol. 240, 1952, pp. 339-61.

Lévi, S., Le Népal, 3 vols., Paris, 1905.

Linrothe, R., Ruthless Compassion, London, 1999.

Lo Bue, E., ‘Statuary Metals in Tibet and the Himalayas: History, Tradition and Modern Use', in W. Oddy and W. Zwalf, eds., Aspects of Tibetan Metallurgy, London: British Museum, 1981, pp. 33-68.

_____ ‘Casting of Devotional Images in the Himalayas: History, Tradition, and Modern Techniques', in Oddy and Zwalf, eds., Aspects of Tibetan Metallurgy, pp. 69-86. 

_____ ‘Sculptural Styles According to Pema Karpo', in J. Casey Singer and P. Denwood, eds., Tibetan Art: Towards a Definition of Style, London, 1997, pp. 242-53.

Locke, J., Karunamaya, Kathmandu, 1980.

Luczanits, C., Buddhist Sculptures in Clay, Chicago, 2004.

Lutz, A., Der Tempel der Drei Pagoden von Dali, Zurich: Museum Rietberg, 1991.

Mallmann, M. T. de, Introduction à l'iconographie du tantrisme bouddhique, Paris 1986. 

Marshak, B. and Raspopova, V., ‘Buddha Icon from Panjikent', Silk Road Art and Archaeology, 5, 1997-8, pp. 297-305.

Martin, D., The Emergence of Bon and the Tibetan Polemical Tradition, diss. Indiana University, Bloomington, 1991. 

Nebesky-Wojkowitz, R. de, Oracles and Demons of Tibet, Graz, 1976.

_____ Tibetan Religious Dances, The Hague, 1976.

Okada, A. and Nou, J.-L., Ajanta, Paris, 1991.

Pal, P., The Arts of India and Nepal: The Nasli and Alice Heeramaneck Collection, Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1966.

_____ The Arts of Nepal, vol. 1: Sculpture, Leiden, 1974.

_____ Art of Tibet, Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1983.

_____ Art of Nepal, Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1985.

_____ Art and Architecture of Ancient Kashmir, Bombay, 1989.

_____ Art of the Himalayas: Treasures from Nepal and Tibet, New York, 1991.

_____ A Collecting Odyssey: Indian, Himalayan and Southeast Asian Art from the James and Marilynn Alsdorf Collection, Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1997.

_____ Desire and Devotion: Art from India, Nepal and Tibet in the John and Berthe Ford Collection, Baltimore: Walters Art Gallery, 2001.

_____ Asian Art at the Norton Simon Museum, vol. 1: Art from the Indian Subcontinent, New Haven and London, 2003. 

_____ Himalayas: An Aesthetic Adventure (with contributions by A. Heller, O. von Hinüber, and G. Vajracharya), Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2003.

Postel, M., Ear Ornaments of Ancient India, Bombay, 1989.

Rawson, J., The Ornament on Chinese Silver of the Tang Dynasty (AD 618-906), London: British Museum, 1982. 

Reedy, C., ‘A Buddha within a Buddha: Two Medieval Himalayan Metal Statues', Arts of Asia, 1986, 2, pp. 94-101.

_____ ‘Tibetan Bronzes: Technical Observations', in P. Pal, ed., On the Path to Void, Bombay, 1996, pp. 162-79.

_____ Himalayan Bronzes: Technology, Style and Choices, London, 1997.

Reynolds, V., Heller, A., and Gyatso, J., Catalogue of the Newark Museum Tibetan Collection, vol. III: Sculpture and Painting, Newark, 1986. 

Rhie, M., ‘Buddhist Images of Gansu', in J. Baker, ed., The Flowering of a Foreign Faith: New Studies in Chinese Buddhist Art, Bombay, 1998.

_____ and Thurman, R., Wisdom and Compassion, New York and San Francisco: Asian Art Museum, 1991.

Ricca, F. and Lo Bue, E., The Great Stupa of Gyantse, London, 1993.

Richardson, H. E., A Corpus of Early Tibetan Inscriptions, London, 1985.

_____ (ed. M. V. Aris), High Peaks, Pure Earth, London, 1998.

Roberts, P. A., ‘The Kagyu School', in D. Dinwiddie, ed., Portraits of the Masters, Chicago, 2004, pp. 116-200. 

Roerich, G., tr., The Blue Annals, Delhi, 1979.

Rowland, B. (rev. J. C. Harle), The Art and Architecture of India, Harmondsworth and New York, 1977. 

Schroeder, U. von, Indo-Tibetan Bronzes, Hong Kong, 1981.

_____ Buddhist Sculptures in Tibet, Hong Kong, 2001.

Selig Brown, K., Eternal Presence: Handprints and Footprints in Buddhist Art, Katonah: Katonah Museum of Art, 2004. 

Simons, A., Schön W., and Shresta, S. S., ‘Archeological Research in Mustang', Ancient Nepal, 140, 1998, pp. 65-83.

Siudmak, J., ‘The Development of the Classical Buddha Image from Kashmir and Some Observations on Kashmirian Influence on the Sculpture of West Tibet', Oriental Art, 2000, 2, pp. 36-46.

Skorupski, T., Sarvadurgatiparisodhana tantra: Elimination of all Evil Destinies, Delhi, 1983. 

_____ The Buddhist Forum, vol. VI, Tring, 2001.

Slusser, M., ‘Some Nepalese Stone Sculptures: A Reappraisal Within their Cultural and Historical Context', Artibus Asiae, 1973, 1/2, pp.79-138. 

_____ Nepal Mandala, 2 vols., Princeton, 1982.

Snellgrove, D., ‘Shrines and Temples of Nepal', Arts Asiatiques, 8, 1961, pp. 3-10, 93-120.

_____ The Image of the Buddha, Paris and London, 1978.

_____ Indo-Tibetan Buddhism, London, 1987.

_____ and Skorupski, T., The Cultural Heritage of Ladakh, 2 vols., Warminster, 1979-80.

Stein, R., ‘Un document ancien relatif aux rites funéraires des bon-po tibétains', Journal Asiatique, 1970, pp.155-85.

_____ ‘Du récit au rituel dans les manuscrits tibétains de Touen-houang', in A. Macdonald, ed., Études tibétaines dédiées à la mémoire de Marcelle Lalou, Paris, 1971, pp. 479-547.

_____ ‘La gueule du Makara, un trait inexpliqué de certains objets rituels', in A. Macdonald and Y. Imaeda, eds., Essais sur l'art du Tibet, Paris, 1977. 

_____ ‘Saint et divin: Un titre des rois tibétains et chinois', Journal Asiatique, 1981, pp. 231-75.

_____ La Civilisation Tibétaine, 3rd edn., Paris, 1987.

Thurman, R. and Weldon, D., Sacred Symbols: The Ritual Art of Tibet, New York, 1999.

Tucci, G., Tibetan Painted Scrolls, Rome, 1949.

_____, To Lhasa and Beyond, Rome, 1956.

_____, Transhimalaya, Geneva, 1973.

Uebach, H., ‘Eminent Ladies of the Tibetan Empire According to Old Tibetan texts', in S. Karmay and P. Sagant, eds., Les Habitants du Toit du Monde, Nanterre, 1997, pp. 53-74. 174. 

Uhlig, H., On the Path to Enlightenment, Zürich: Museum Rietberg, 1995.

Uldry, P., Chinesische Gold und Silber, Zürich: Museum Rietberg, 1994.

Van den Berghe, L., and Overlaet, B., Splendeurs des Sassanides, Brussels: Musées Royaux d'Art et d'Histoire, 1993. 

Vira, R. and Chandra, L., Tibetan Mandalas (Vajravali and Tantra-samuccaya), New Delhi: International Academy of Indian Culture, 1999.

Vitali, R., Early Temples of Central Tibet, London, 1990.

_____ The Kingdoms of Gu.ge Pu.hrang, Dharamsala, 1996.

_____ ‘Sa skya and the mNga' ris skor gsum legacy: The Case of Rin chen bzang po's Flying Mask', in R. Vitali, ed., Lungta 14: Aspects of Tibetan History, Dharamsala, 2001. 

Wandl, E., ‘The Representations of Costumes and Textiles', in D. Klimburg-Salter, Tabo: A Lamp for the Kingdom, Milan, 1997, pp. 179-88.

Watt, J., and Wardwell, A., When Silk was Gold, New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1997.

Weldon, D., ‘Tibetan Sculpture Inspired by Earlier Foreign Sculptural Styles', Oriental Art, 2000, 2, pp. 47-56.

_____ and Casey Singer, J., The Sculptural Heritage of Tibet: Buddhist Art in the Nyingjei Lam Collection, London, 1999. 

Whitfield, R., The Art of Central Asia in the Stein Collection of the British Museum, London, 1985.

_____ and Farrer, A., Caves of the Thousand Buddhas: Chinese Art from the Silk Route, London, 1990.

Willson, M., and Brauen, M., Deities of Tibetan Buddhism, Boston, 2000.

Woodward, H., ‘The Indian Roots of the "Burmese Life of the Buddha" Plaques', Silk Road Art and Archeology, 5, 1997-8, pp. 395-40.

_____ ‘Artistic Production, Religious Practice: Material and Ideological Constraints', in P. Pal, Desire and Devotion, Baltimore, 2001.

Zla ba tshe ring et al., eds., Precious Deposits: Historical Relics of Tibet, China, Beijing, 2000.

Zwalf, W., Buddhism: Art and Faith, London: British Museum, 1985.


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